During the week of June 17, 2019, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a meeting in San Francisco, California with state coordinators and kicked off the 2020 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment (DWINSA). This will be the seventh such survey of public water system infrastructure and treatment needs and is used to estimate needs over the next 20 years. The last survey, which was conducted in 2015, found that $472.6 billion was needed to maintain and improved the nation’s drinking water over the next 20 years. Distribution and transmission costs comprised the largest category of need with a need estimated at $312.6 billion to replace or refurbish aging or deteriorating pipelines. The second largest category of need was treatment, with an estimated $83 billion needed to construct, expand, or rehabilitate infrastructure and reduce contamination for an ever-growing list of harmful substances. The current survey will include an estimate of the number of lead service lines, as well as the replacement costs for those lines for both publicly- and privately-owned systems. This additional survey component is required by America’s Water Infrastructure Act.